Modhesh's Library

Scientific personality
Jaber Ibn Hayyan: He is Abu Abdullah Jaber Ibn Hayyan Bin Abdullah Al Koufi, a chemist born in Iraq, who was able to come to fundamental chemical facts thanks to his empirical and induction-based approach.
Ibn Hayyan wrote many books in other scientific disciplines than chemistry. He wrote books on philosophy, astrology, medicine and nature including Kitab al-Kimya, Book of the Kingdom, Book of the Balances, Book of Eastern Mercury.

Literary personality
Al Mutanabbi: Ahmed Bin Al Hussain Bin Al Hassan Bin Abdul Samad Abu Al Tayyeb Al Ja’afi Al Koufi, the poet of Arabs, was born in Al Koufa, Iraq. The best of his poetry revolves around wisdom, the philosophy of life and the description of battles. Many of his poems were and still are widely spread in today's Arab world.
Ahmed Shawqi: An Egyptian poet born in Cairo and nicknamed as the prince of poets. He wrote religious poems in praise of Prophet Muhammad and his political poems led to his exile in Andalusia, Spain. Other poems revolved around nostalgia and patriotism. He also wrote “Esh-Shawqiyyat” for children and many epics.

The Four Righteous Caliphs
Abu Bakr: He is Abdullah ibn Abi Qahafa, a senior companion and the father-in-law of Prophet Muhammad. He became the first Muslim Caliph following Prophet Muhammad's death. As Caliph, Abu Bakr succeeded to the political and administrative functions previously exercised by the Prophet, since the religious function and authority of prophethood ended with Muhammad's death according to Islam. Abu Bakr was called Al-Siddiq (The Truthful) and was known by that title among later generations of Muslims.

Umar ibn al-Khattab: Umar Ibn al-Khattab was a leading companion and adviser to Prophet Muhammad. He succeeded Caliph Abu Bakr as the second Caliph and was the first to be called Amir Al Mu’mineen (Prince of the Believers). A great political and military leader, Umar ruled for 10 years during which the Islamic empire expanded at an unprecedented rate. Umar was known for his simple, austere lifestyle and rarely laughed or joked with anyone.

Uthman ibn Affan: He was a companion of Prophet Muhammad and became the third Caliph at the age of 70. He ruled for six years and was best known for his generosity and great deeds, giving large amounts of his own money to serve Islam. He is also remembered for being a handsome and plain rather than luxurious man.
Ali ibn Abi Talib: He was Prophet Muhammad’s cousin and the husband of his daughter Fatima Al Zahra. He took over as the fourth Caliph in the year 36 A.H following Utman Ibn Affan’s assassination. He was assassinated by Abdul Rahman ibn Muljam during Fajr prayers.

Founders of the UAE
Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan:
In 1918, His Highness Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan was born into the Al Nahyan family, which has ruled the emirate of Abu Dhabi for hundreds of years. He was the youngest of the four sons of Sheikh Sultan bin Zayed, who ruled Abu Dhabi between 1922 and 1926. When Sheikh Sultan’s successor died in 1928, Sheikh Zayed’s eldest brother, Sheikh Shakhbut, was elected by the family to be ruler. Sheikh Zayed took over as ruler of Abu Dhabi in 1966 and as President of the UAE between 1971 till 2004 when he passed away. Sheikh Zayed was brought up in Al Ain City, where he spent his early youth and experienced life in the desert from which he gained patience, insight and wisdom.
http://www.sheikhzayed.com/arabic.htm

Sheikh Rashid Bin Saeed Al Maktoum: Sheikh Rashid, ruler of Dubai from 1958 - 1990, was the eighth ruler from the Al Maktoum family. Well loved and greatly respected by the residents of Dubai, Sheikh Rashid ruled the emirate with compassion and with a clear vision of what was required in order to transform Dubai into a modern city. Driven by this vision, Sheikh Rashid accomplished what many believed to be impossible.
As the first-born son of Sheikh Saeed, he involved himself at an early age in the politics of the emirate. He frequently attended his father's Majlis; ever curious, he would listen intently to each man's dilemma or opinion. Eager to comprehend the manner of governing a state, he would spend long hours questioning his parents about the events of the day.
http://sheikhmohammed.ae/vgn-ext-templating/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=811e4c8631cb4110VgnVCM100000b0140a0aRCRD

Useful websites:
http://www.kids.jo/main/
http://www.al-fateh.net/
http://forum.al-wlid.com/t12711.html

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